Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases

The Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Infectious diseases have always existed and have had a major impact on human development. It is widely believed that our immune systems and genetic makeup have evolved over many years under the selective pressure of potentially fatal diseases, such as malaria (Haldane 1948; Weatherall 1996). In addition, epidemics of infectious diseases have decimated entire communities, and have sometimes changed the course of history. Examples In Europe in the 14th Century, there were about 25 million deaths from bubonic plague out of a population of approximately 100 million. In 1520 the Aztecs lost about half of their population of 3.5 million from smallpox, introduced by the more immune invading Spaniards. This has been proposed as an important feature in the defeat of the Aztecs by the Spanish invaders. In 1919, after the First World War, the global epidemics of influenza killed an estimated 20 million people during one year more than died as a result of the war. During the 20th century, important advances in the prevention and control of many infectious diseases were achieved with the development of vaccines and antibiotic drugs. This has sometimes created the impression that infectious diseases are no longer a major threat to public health. However, this is far from being the case. The following is a quote from Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, the Director-General of the World Health Organization: Illness and death from infectious diseases can be, in most cases, avoided at an affordable cost. It is in everyones interest that these obstacles to development be removed. Because of drug resistance, increased travel and the emergence of new diseases, we may only have a limited time in which to make rapid progress. In the following, you will see some of the reasons why infectious diseases are still an important challenge to public health at the beginning of the 21st century. Mortality Infectious diseases are a leading cause of global mortality, causing more than 13 million deaths a year. They are still the main cause of death among children under 5 and the main single cause of premature death in persons under the age of 45. Morbidity Infectious diseases are also a major cause of global morbidity. They are responsible for a huge amount of disability and suffering in the world as measured in DALYs. DALY Disability Adjusted Life Years, a measure of disease burden. It includes years of life lost due to premature death, and years of healthy life lost due disability or illness. Recurring episodes of illness and long-term disability have a major economic impact on the developing countries most affected by infectious diseases. Role in chronic disease Infectious diseases are increasingly being implicated in the pathogenesis of many important diseases that were previously thought to have a non-infectious origin. Cervical cancer is now known to be associated with human papillomavirus infection. Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the most common cancer in women in many developing countries. In the past two decades, evidence has grown on the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Chronic infection with hepatitis B or C can cause primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is among the most common cancers in many parts of Africa and Asia. Potential for epidemic spread A specific feature of infectious diseases is their ability to be transmitted between individuals. This can result in the occurrence of large outbreaks. Between 1997-2000 there were more than 600 outbreaks of disease considered by the WHO to be of international importance. Outbreak The term used to describe a localised epidemic, e.g. in a village, town or city. The term large outbreak is increasingly being used instead of epidemic, as it is less emotive. With increasing urbanisation and international travel, the world is becoming a smaller place, and the routes for transmission of infection are increasing. Aeroplane journeys enable individuals to travel within the incubation period of most infectious diseases. This allows infections to spread to distant places within very short periods of time. An example of this is the annual global dispersal of meningococcal meningitis by pilgrims returning from the Haj Muslim religious festival (Saudi Arabia). Newly emerging diseases Over the past three decades, over 30 new infectious diseases and pathogens have been identified for the first time in humans. These include diseases with a very high case-fatality rate, such as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (nvCJD) and Ebola haemorrhagic fever. Some of these new infections are highly prevalent, for example Hepatitis C and rotavirus. Other infections, such as HIV, have rapidly spread around the world. New variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (nvCJD) A new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was described in the United Kingdom in 1996. The agent is considered to be the same as that causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy, a disease that emerged in the 1980s and affected thousands of cattle in the United Kingdom and other, mainly European countries. Ebola The first outbreaks of Ebola haemorrhagic fever occurred in 1976 and the discovery of the virus was reported in 1977. Cases reported to WHO up to June 1997 indicated a case-fatality rate of over 70%. A major outbreak in Uganda in 2000 was thought to be associated with spread of the virus by soldiers moving across the country. Hepatitis C This virus was identified in 1989, and is now known to be the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis worldwide. So far, up to 3% of the world population are estimated to be infected, among whom 170 million are chronic carriers at risk of developing liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. Rotavirus First recognised in 1973, rotavirus is the most common cause of childhood diarrhoea worldwide. 20% of all diarrhoeal deaths and 5% of all deaths in under-5 year olds are due to rotavirus. HIV Although the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was recognised in 1981, the causal virus, HIV, was first isolated in 1983. It is estimated that, since the start of the epidemic, 30.6 million people worldwide have become HIV-infected and nearly 12 million have died from AIDS or AIDS-related diseases. Re-emerging diseases In addition to the emergence of new infectious diseases, many old diseases that had previously been under control are starting to appear in increased numbers or in previously unaffected populations. Resurgence of infectious diseases can occur because of any of the following reasons: changes in social or environmental conditions, failure to maintain immunisation programmes, increased drug resistance Drug resistance is currently an increasing problem for a number of diseases worldwide, and we are often in a race to develop new treatments faster than the pathogens can develop resistance. Example Since the mid-1980s there has been a major resurgence of diphtheria in several countries of Eastern Europe, which had previously been progressing towards elimination of the disease. In 1993, 15,211 diphtheria cases were reported in Russia and 2,987 cases in Ukraine. The main reason for the return of diphtheria in these countries was a decreased immunisation coverage due to an irregular supply of vaccines and large-scale population movements (Galazka et al 1995). Example Mortality and morbidity rates from tuberculosis (TB) in industrialised countries declined during most of the 20th century. However, from the mid-1980s onwards, many of these countries have seen an important increase in the incidence of TB. This is mainly due to a decline in TB control programmes, the increased incidence of multi-drug resistance TB and the effect of the HIV epidemic (Grange 1998). Potential for prevention and control The mechanisms involved in many infectious diseases are well understood, from the molecular aspects of the infectious agent to the demographic characteristics of host populations. This level of understanding has enabled potentially very effective prevention and control measures to be developed for some infectious diseases. With efficient intervention strategies and the advent of national public health agencies, elimination of specific infectious diseases has become feasible. In some cases, there has even been the possibility (or reality) of global eradication. Following the successful WHO programme for the global eradication of smallpox through vaccination, the last naturally acquired case of this disease occurred in October 1977 in Somalia. The countries of the Western Hemisphere have set a target for the elimination of measles by the end of the year 2005. Polio and guineaworm are now also on the verge of eradication, after intensive, globally co-ordinated programmes. Strategies to immunise millions of children on the same day have resulted in few countries now reporting cases due to wild poliovirus. Infectious disease epidemiology In epidemiology, we are interested in describing and explaining the distribution of diseases in populations. The distribution of an infectious disease depends on the transmission of the infectious agent within the host population. This is a dynamic process, which is influenced by characteristics of the specific infectious agent, characteristics of the host population and characteristics of the relationship between the infectious agent and the host.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Challenges in Workplace Communication

Challenges in Workplace Communication Anjeshni 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The main purpose of this report writing is to find out about communication and communication challenges that are faced by different people in their workplace. Our major focuses was on business house based in South Auckland. This was made possible by conducting interviews on three different people working for different companies and doing various research. After completion of this research it was easier to know how communication challenges are faced by people in their workplace and how problem can be solved. To start off on our research a request letter for interview was send to three different people working for three different business. This was done to find out communication challenges and strategic that are faced by people in their workplace. Time and date was set for an interview with them and interview was conducted with a set of questionnaire in relation to communication challenges at their respective workplace. The three different people that interview was conducted were Mrs Bikashni Prakash, Mr Romit Prakash and Ms Nicky. After the completion of interview thanks giving email were send to each one of them for giving their precious time and related information regarding communication challenges in their workplace. According to interview the most common communication barrier that was found in workplace were language barriers. As my interview environment was a supermarket and many customers that come in supermarket were of different races and not all of them know English. Some of the customers are from India and they speak Punjabi language so it becomes hard sometimes to communicate with them. The final step was to prepare report based on communication challenges and barriers that are faced at different workplaces with different people. Since communication is a vital part of any business it must be understand well by people a single breakdown in communication can lead to a big problem for a business. It is important for every individual in a business to know how to faced challenges. Table of Contents (Jump to) 2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 COMUNICATION 2.1.1 Types of Communication 2.1.2 Advantages of Communication 2.1.3 Disadvantage of Communication 2.1.4 Communication Barriers 2.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE 2.3 OBJECTIVES 2.4 METHODOLOGY 3.0 FINDINGS 3.1 Candidate 1 Background 3.1.1 Communication Problems and Effect on Workplace 3.1.2 Outcomes towards Communication Problems 3.2 Candidate 2 – Background 3.2.1 Communication Problems and Effect on Workplaces 3.2.2 Outcomes towards Communication Problem 3.3 Candidate 3 – Background 3.3.1 Communication Problems and Effect on Workplaces 3.3.2 Outcomes towards Communication Problem 4.0 CONCLUSION 5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS 6.0 APPENDICES 2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 COMUNICATION Communication is transferring information from one place to another. Communication is a simple definition but how we communicates becomes a lot more complex. Proper communication leads to understanding of a situation. If there is a communication breakdown misunderstanding occurs which leads to problem in a business. The theory of a communication states that communication involves both sender and receiver passing information through communication channel. Communication channel is a way in which we communicate. It is important for a business to choose a proper communication channel since it has different strength and different weakness. Communication are always complex and it is a two way process. Communication in a business can be of two type internal and external. Internal communication occurs within a company among employees, between employers, supervisors and workers. External communication happens outside the company it mostly occurs between customer or clients, suppliers, governm ent department e.g. bank, IRD and with other companies and stakeholders. Therefore it is a must to have better understanding of a communication and its process. 2.1.1 Types of Communication Verbal communication that is spoken face to face or through telephone. Non-verbal communication it is how we present ourselves through body language. Written Communication through letters, emails, internet and media. Visualizations – graphics, charts, maps and logo. Five main purpose of communication are to inform, persuade, create goodwill instruct and to inspire. 2.1.2 Advantages of Communication It helps people manage and maintain organisational operations. Communication happens in may form and it is different means for different situation. Communication is used to become familiar which leads to friendship. This is good for company since it helps workers to work together by knowing each other’s strength and weakness. But sometimes this cause distraction workers spending time chatting which affects the production. 2.1.3 Disadvantage of Communication Conflict is the main problem by the use of communication employees may disagree and argue with each other and management on a situation. It can cause tension and can affect the production. Conflict happens in a company due to workers demand not met and misunderstanding between and among workers. 2.1.4 Communication Barriers â€Å"Communication barriers is anything that gets in the way of clear communication between sender and receiver.†(Sandra 2006). Barriers are the main cause of communication breakdown. There are different type of communication barriers. Physical Barriers this happens in many different forms. It can cause by phone, internet, communication distance and physical objects in the way of a sender and receiver. Other physical barriers which cause communication breakdown can be tiredness which cause difficult in concentrate. Hearing, sight and speech problem also environment problem that is how when and why we communicate. Lack of non-verbal information. Technology or medium that is what we used to communicate e.g. phone call or txt. Technical problem sometimes happen when phone line is not clear or network is down. Grammar, spelling punctuation and sentence structure it distracted attention from message. Also due to lack of visual clues in the telephone conversation when don’t know the age or what’s the other person state of mind or expression. Emotional barriers this takes place when we are upset, worried or sad and can miss what others are responding. Anger, embarrassment and fear are strong emotion which affects the communication. Often people don’t express their emotion because sometimes it makes others uncomfortable. Not expressing emotion is a barrier because it inhibits the development of relationships, trust and open communication. Defensive, negative or overly assertive also affects means we don’t pay attention to suggestion for improvement or by breaking others trust and be too self-confident and unaware of others needs and rights. Language based barriers this is most common. The main factor is not knowing the language. Since New Zealand in a country of multi race different people all over the world lives here and everyone doesn’t know others language so it becomes hard to communicate with them. The influence of one language to another some words in some languages look much alike but it has different mean in different language. The way we pronounce words and using idioms i.e. unusual or non-literal meaning we give to words that are in common usages this leads to misunderstanding. Different abilities with language due to education. Tone the way words are said and by using jargon technical terms. Psychological barriers this happens due to religion, politics and valves what an individual beliefs. Personality is the nature and character of individual and the experience. Lack of confidence and feedback that we don’t receive and attitude to communication or style e.g. some people are better in speech then writing. Gender and Culture major issues in communication. Gender is the differences between men and women their listen differently. Men listen for information and know what to do next whereas women listen for feelings and empathise. Women concentrate on relationship while men focuses on tasks. Culture has many influence and impact on communication due to difference in traditions and behaviours the way we met and greet with others. Understanding culture difference is important in business. Technology there are many benefit of technology such as texting on mobile, sending email using PowerPoint for presentation and internet for research but still there are effects of this on communication due to lack of feedback since technology is not available to everyone. 2.2 TERMS OF REFERENCE This assignment was given to us by our Business Communication tutor Mrs Sheetal Singh. This is part of our Business Communication 520 paper. The due date of this project is on Friday week 12. Interview was conducted with three different people working for three different organisation in order to find out communication challenges faced by them at their workplaces. 2.3 OBJECTIVES The main objectives of this assignment was to find out communication challenges that is faced by different people at their workplace in New Zealand. During this research it was also found out how communication barriers affect work of an individual and to find out how to overcome those problem in a workplace. 2.4 METHODOLOGY The method used in completing this assignment is by doing interview of three individual working for different organisation. Also assignment as completed by doing internet and text book research. 3.0 FINDINGS 3.1 Candidate 1 Background My first candidate was Mrs Bikashni Prakash. She works for Food for Less Supermarket as a Checkout Supervisor located at 64 Atkinson Avenue Otahuhu. For the past nine years she has been employed in this company and has been living in New Zealand for more than eleven years now. She is an Indo Fijian and speaks Fiji Hindi and English. There are roughly 30 employees working for Food for Less and age group of employees are from 20 – 50 years. Her duties includes managing checkout, doing customer service, dealing with customers and suppliers. During her work experience she has faced many problems regarding communication challenges and barriers. 3.1.1 Communication Problems and Effect on Workplace The main communication challenges faced by Mrs Bikashni Prakash in her workplaces were language barriers since she is working for a supermarket and many of the customers that comes in a supermarket are Indians from Fiji and India. They are from many different cultures and races. It is sometimes difficult to communicate with these customers because of the language since some Punjabi customers don’t know English and their Hindi is quite different from Fiji Hindi. 3.1.2 Outcomes towards Communication Problems Her problem was solved by one of the staff who is Punjabi she seek help from her understanding what the customer was saying. She mostly spend her time with her workmates to know about different language, socialise with different people. If she is not sure about something she always ask for feedback from her workmates and by listening properly to what customers are saying. 3.2 Candidate 2 – Background Mr Romit Prakash is a Director of Globex Importers and Exporters which is located at Atkinson Avenue Otahuhu and has been living in New Zealand for more than 15 years. Mr Prakash started his company five years ago. He is an Indo Fijian and his main language is English and Fiji Hindi. There are roughly 15 workers working for him and their age groups are between 20 to 40 years. His responsibility include managing overall company checking all the packing and delivery of items are done properly and on time, dealing with clients and suppliers. 3.2.1 Communication Problems and Effect on Workplaces The main communication challenges faced by Mr Prakash in his company were gender and culture barriers. People working in his company are from different races who are Indo Fijian and islanders. They have different cultural behaviour and the way sometimes the workers speak makes it hard for understanding. They tend to speak their own language and not adapt to others. Gender barriers also happen in Globex since both male and female works here. Other barriers that affect operation of Globex are language and technology problem. Since nowadays everything is done by machines but sometimes due to breakdown of machines lead to delay in packing and production. Language barriers also affect his workplace since all his staff are always talking in their mother tongue language affecting others as not all are able to understand. This tend to make other staffs think that they might be talk against them so discrimination becomes a factor from here amongst the workers. 3.2.2 Outcomes towards Communication Problem He resolved this communication barriers by letting his staff spending some time together during breaks to know about each other culture and language. To overcome gender issues in his workplace he divided different sections of packing room to males and females so that packing was done amongst and no time was wasted. Since male workers were able to lift heavy boxes for loading and offloading whereas females were doing packing, sealing and labelling of products dividing work equally To minimise challenges related to technology issues, it was a rule that no mobile phones were to be used during working hours. All mobiles had to be put in locker so that staff can concentrate on their work instead of diverting their mind elsewhere. And another solution he tried to implement was by regularly servicing of machines and having spare ones so that if one breakdowns other one is available and work wouldn’t stop. 3.3 Candidate 3 – Background Ms Nicky is a Manager at Super valve which is located at 29 -33 Hall Avenue Otahuhu and has been employed for 6years now. She is from India and has been living in New Zealand for almost 15 years. Her responsibility includes managing checkout operations, general running operations of the supermarket, dealing with staff’s relation matter, dealing with customers and supplies complaint. They are roughly about 30 staffs working for Super Valve and most of them are Punjabis from India. Few Islanders and Indo Fijian are also working whose age groups range from 20 to 50 years. 3.3.1 Communication Problems and Effect on Workplaces The main communication problems faced by Ms Nicky at Super valve is culture and language barriers. It is a multi-racial supermarket and it has different races of customers. Some are Islanders, Indians from Fiji and India, Kiwi and Europeans. Sometimes aged customers come to shop who are not able to speak English and communication problems arises there. Culture barriers are also happening since workers working are from different races. Technology barriers also occur sometimes as well as emotional barriers this happens when a checkout operator or customer service personal are upset or having some personal problem it directly affected their work in terms of not smiling to customers and talking to them. 3.3.2 Outcomes towards Communication Problem She tried hard to overcome this problem by letting staff spending sometimes together, socialising to know each other culture and language. Ms Nicky always tried to have back up system available in case of technology or machine breakdown. Counselling are also affordable so that sometimes if management feels that any workers are in some types of problem, trainings are provide of how to serve customers and be friendly to them. All this relates to having small workshops within the company   4.0 CONCLUSION To conclude this research communication challenges that are faced by people at their workplace are basically the same. The major communication barriers that people face are language barriers. Other barriers that are found in workplace are culture and gender barriers, technology and physical barriers. Language barriers are the most common barriers in my research with responding with all the candidates facing communication challenges at their workplace. This can happen between co-workers or with customers. Technology barriers takes place since not everyone’s educated and don’t have access to technology or may lack the confidence, experience and knowledge to use them e.g. in most supermarket EFTPOS machine are available but some customers don’t have the knowledge as to how to swipe the card or what function to use for which account. Culture and gender barriers this takes place because New Zealand is a multicultural country and everyone should have equal right. It is very much important to understand and respect each other cultures and races. Physical barriers takes place due breakdown of communication channel or not getting full and proper information. The impact of communication channels and barriers on workplace blocks understanding of messages in many different ways which affects both sender and receiver. Aware of barriers can help to avoid communication breakdown and less effect on communication problems. Secondly barriers can cause organisation to business, customers and reputation. Not proper communication can cause communication gaps and bring misunderstanding in an organisation. Lastly, employees should understand each other and their culture which can help to prevent arguments and fights and people using slangs language often can be offensive and can lead to affect others workers in particular workplace and customers. 5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS After compelling all the information gathered through interviews and research some of the recommendations that can be made to prevent communication barriers at workplace. Most of general communication barriers can be overcome with knowledge, sensitivity by understanding theory and monitoring your behaviour. Instead of using technology for communication in some case communicate face to face. Socialization of workers with each other should be done to learn about different language and others culture. Try to use body gestures if possible in communication if other parties can’t understand your language. By acting ethically, openly and honestly which can bring positive communication. â€Å"Treating others as you wish to be treated yourself ’’ (Sandra etal 2006). By increasing awareness we can help to elimate effects of emotionality. Try to being sensitive to one’s mood aware of how that might influence others before communication an important message. By creating an atmosphere where emotions will not come as a barrier and by giving constructive feedbacks. Pay attention what others are saying try to listen carefully. Communication should not take place under mental stress and by using appropriate language which is suitable for recipient. By developing good communications, skills can overcome the communication barriers by understanding the basic of communication skills knowing what communication really is. By having courage to say what you think be confident and doing practice to developed advanced communication skills. By engaging your audience by making eye contact, gestures and avoid sending mixed message. By using body language beware of what your body is saying and by development effective listening skills. When using verbal always try to speak clearly. 6.0 APPENDICES 3 Interview Letters 3 copies of emails 3 questionnaires

Thursday, September 19, 2019

the color purple Essay -- essays research papers

Color of Purple is a Novel by Alice Walker, published in 1982. It won a Pulitzer Prize in 1983. A feminist novel about an abused and uneducated black woman's struggle for empowerment, the novel was praised for the depth of its female characters and for its eloquent use of black English vernacular. African-American people have had to climb over many obstacles to get to their position today. First, was the selling of their people into slavery. Then, they endured slavery itself, being treated like an animal. After slavery was abolished, Colored people still had to deal with racial discrimination and hatred. If this sounds rough, black women had it worse. African-American women had to deal with all the previously mentioned things, but they were women too! Females were oppressed almost as bad as the blacks. White women were not able to vote until the 1920. Therefore colored women had a double edged sword, they had to fight for freedom, but not be to dominate as to effect the men. Alice Walker's The Color Purple is a good example of colored women's plight. Three obstacles black women had to overcome to be able to express themselves were Racism, the lack of education, and the stereo-type that women are inferior. Sophia is Harpo's wife and a very strong character. She does not let anyone beat her or slap her. After the mayor of the town slaps her she attacks him and is sent to jail. In order to survive, she is forced to become the maid and servant for the mayor. Later she moves back in with Harpo and finally works for Celie in the general store. Black women were known as "the mule of the world", before, in the 1930s, where this novel takes place. Sofia, one of the fictions characters presented by Alice Walker on her novel The Color Purple is portrayed as a strong woman, one of the "mules of the world", but, even though she is insulted, beaten and underestimated, she is willing to change the system and change the image of black woman that American black and white man possess. She is an honorary mule that wants to change the system, but in change, society breaks her. Sofia, a radical woman, is willing to give her life away to her being treated equally to the rest of the world. She wants to see this happening, and fights for it, pays hard, but never experiences this equality happening. First, she is discriminated by Harpo, who is taught by Mr. ... ... She stood outside on her side the car clearing her throat. Finally she say, Sofia, with a little laugh, This is the South. Yes ma'am, I say. She clear her throat, laugh some more. Look where you sitting, she say. I'm sitting where I always sit, I say. That's the problem, she say. Have you ever seen a white person and a colored sitting side by side in a car, when one of Å’em wasn't showing the other one how to drive it or clean it ?" (pg. 109). This is the kind of mentality possessed by whites in the 1930s, time of the book. Blacks and whites could not be seen treated as equal, as what was happening with Sofia and Miss Millie. The proof that shows that blacks are not necessarily inferior, but equal or superior is shown when Sofia teaches Miss Millie to drive. All these examples show how Sofia demonstrates that blacks, nor women are less efficient than the rest of the world, the same or even more. Sofia is a fighter, one who fights for her rights of equality as a woman and as a black. She, as a feminist and proponent of radical equality wants to change the system, but society ends up breaking her, showing the little power of influence that a black woman has on the world.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Historical Account of African-Americans Seeking the American Dream Essa

Historical Account of African-Americans Seeking the American Dream The American Dream began as a vision for the men who framed the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States of America. These two documents provided the foundation upon which the American Dream was built. The reality of the American Dream translated into a nightmare for the African-Americans who had to overcome slavery in order to achieve the ideal that all men are created equally. Their dream did not become a reality with the signing of the Declaration of Independence; in fact, even after slavery was abolished, there was no concrete date established that mandated that whites and African-Americans were equal. The law said the slaves were free; however, society did not consider them equals. The African-American writers utilize the American Dream in their works, but they seem to use it in an interesting manner: connecting to the past in order to realize their future. The slave narratives outline dreams of freedom and often provide insight into the horrors of s lavery, while more contemporary writers use the dream to connect to their characters’ past and the horrors in their lives in order to realize their future. The founding fathers of the United States of America crystalized this country with a "dream". Their dream was a vision of the things they wanted in life and for their country, which was memorialized in the form of the Declaration of Independence. The architects that built this country dreamed that all men would be considered equals and "that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights" including "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" (Jefferson, 729). The original version of this dream, found in ... ...ument, which made this declaration. The American Dream is a real part of our culture and the dream seems to be a strong theme in the African-American literary canon. Works Cited Bradley, David. The Chaneysville Incident. New York: Harper & Row, 1981. Brent, Linda. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. The Classic Slave Narratives. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: Penguin Group, 1987. Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. The Classic Slave Narratives. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: Penguin Group, 1987. Equiano, Olaudah. The Life of Olaudah Equiano. The Classic Slave Narratives. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: Penguin Group, 1987. King, Jr., Martin Luther. "I Have a Dream." Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C. 28 August 1963. Morrison, Toni. Song of Solomon. New York: The Penguin Group, 1977.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Easter 1916 Essay

William Butler Yeats did not readily support the nationalist ideals in Ireland not so much because he valued the independence of his country so little but rather questioned the means by which it was being promoted. Regardless of Yeats’ political sentiments, he had high regards for the cultural and social heritage of his country as attested to by his earlier works and futures efforts to establish traditional art and literature institutions. The setting of the poem reflects the rise of many political ideologies in Europe that brought into institutions of leadership and society. In Easter, 1916, Yeats recalls the Easter Rising of April 24, 1916 that resulted in military action in Dublin as well as the execution of several leaders of the revolutionary movement, many of whom Yeats was acquainted with. Social Identity In the first stanza of the poem, Yeats illustrates a society that does not really show any indication that it knows or cares for each other. The lines of the verse bring to mind people meeting in the in streets, tipping their heads to each other and uttering automatically greetings without really meaning any of the words spoken. By referring to the social pleasantries as â€Å"polite meaningless words†, Yeats suggests a superficial veneer to these encounters. As reservation to the nationalist movement, the scenario indicates the lack of real communication in society and the predisposition to keep social appearance. Thus, there is also a lack of social identity or concern for social issues. The lack of social identity translates to a compromised national identity. The lack of support form civil society for any nationalist initiative will compromise the political will to achieve true independence. In this perspective, Yeats may have viewed that Irish society was still too attached to the social status quo for it to pay the price for a â€Å"terrible beauty†. At the same time, it gives the impression that the issue was still limited to a few individuals and even if there were public knowledge or support for the nationalist concerns, it is not discussed in public or a subject of open debate. These dichotomies between acceptable social veneers and the real interests of individuals are also reflected in the various characters Yeats uses in the poem. Though they are all portrayed as dramatic characters, he eventually points out that they are participating in a comedy. Yeats points out that regardless of how much the nationalist cause is to each of these characters, there is a persistence of individualistic purpose: even if there is a realization of a collective Irish identity, people remain generally unconcerned with the interests of other people. Ultimately, what Yeats criticizes is the events leading to the Easter Rising and addressed neither the social conditions that will support nationhood or the need for a national identity. Ideology and Reality Yeats did not equate independence with rebellion. There is no denying his regard for the leaders of the Easter Rising: he portrayed them not as idealized heroes but rather as ordinary men answering to an extraordinary cause against extraordinary odds. According to him, the biggest threat to realization of independence is the concentration of politics instead of reform. As suggested in his earlier lines, at times, the concern was limited to political debate and not the social issues of independence, keeping issues impersonal and limited to its facade. Thus, Yeats is saying that before the Easter Rising, â€Å"ignorant good-will† prevailed implying that though there was discussion of independence, there was no true leadership or organized action to achieve it. In essence, Yeats felt that no one truly understood the price of â€Å"terrible beauty†, or what becomes clearly Yeats’ representation of Irish emancipation. For Yeats, independence for Ireland is to be gained from the civil action rather than political initiatives. Of all the characterizations he uses for the poem, it’s the characters of Patrick Pearse and Thomas MacDunagh that he views will contribute more effectively to Irish independence. He highlights their works as teachers and writers, educating and publicizing their cause to the public. Furthermore, Yeats considers this the true ideological foundation for independence: Pearse and MacDunagh’s example deter the apathy, the â€Å"ignorant good-will† and the conformity in Ireland that was an advantage to English control. Yeats emphasizes the need for the independence ideology as a transformative power in society: neither limited nor exclusive as a political or a social concern. He points out a need for independence leaders to stop romanticizing what has to be accomplished to gain independence and to accept that it will likely be violent, bloody and require the sacrifice of many lives. In saying that, â€Å"Wherever green is worn, Are changed, changed utterly†, there is implication that for independence to be a reality for the country, there is a need for social and political change, a condition he believed remained lacking in the revolutionary movements prior to the Easter Rising. Rebellion and Independence Though he criticizes the sense of nationality that motivated the Easter Rising, he points out that the event serves as a reality check as well as an inspiration for future independence initiatives. He points out that the Easter Rising should serve as a lesson of what it means to be under the rule of a foreign power and the price of opposing such a power. Despite his personal feelings towards John MacBride, he groups him together with Thomas MacDonagh, Patrick Pearse, Thomas MacDonagh and James Connolly identifying them as men who are sacrificed for Irish independence. Prior to the Easter Rising, Yeats points out that everything was limited to debate which did not necessarily was for the benefit of furthering independence ideologies but was used as venue for personal showcasing. In the line â€Å"as a mother names her child when sleep has come†, Yeats points out that only those who are willing to give the highest sacrifice, using to refer to death and the sacrifice of one’s life, will be recognized by the Ireland, represented by the mother. The suggestion is not a morbid one but rather is in recognition of the men who were executed in connection with the Easter Rising and future likelihood of future sacrifices for independence. Thus, though Yeats questions the nationalist movement that led to the Easter Rising, he considered the Easter Rising itself as an act true to the cause. He considers the event as marker that Irish society and its views on nationalism and independence have â€Å"changed, changed utterly†. Yeats considers these changes had taken too long because of political debate and the lack of political will, contributing as well to the lack of fervor for true independence in society. In essence, Yeats believed that the rebellion parallel to social awakening and the beginning of the true struggle for independence. Conclusion It should be noted that Yeats has an intimate understanding of the lack of political and social commitment to the ideologies of independence. Like many Irish, prior to the Easter Rising, independence issues was a topic for political debate grandstanding and did not reach popular audiences. The poem also marks a shift in Yeats views on the revolution: the action taken against the revolutionaries and the general pubic to implement control made him question the social value of the political status quo. In summary, Yeats reservation of the nationalist movements that culminate to the Easter Rising rose from his sentiments that they were mired in politics and did not focus enough on social change and did not address the apathy, the â€Å"ignorant good-will† and the conformity that prevailed in Irish society. However, he also commends the Easter Rising as decisive albeit unsuccessful action to gain independence. In conclusion, his critique is that there is a need for action, reform and authenticity of ideology, a state that neither accommodates for personal or political grandstanding and romanticizing of the struggle for independence.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Leadership in Nursing Administration

Leadership is found to be an important factor in the administration of nursing practice, since this practice of nursing requires the leading practioners to be consistent and have knowledge to inspire and encourage others in the working environment through which an individual can provide a better health care in the nursing profession. The qualities for a good leader in this profession include; having a vision, collaborating with others, should have good communication skills. (Grohar and DiCroce, 2002)Research indicates that the nursing professions carry a number of responsibilities shared among staff in a particular health provision center. Under this we find that different ranks of nurses are given different responsibilities, whereby the Executive nurse in any health organization is given the mandatory to ensure that the organization he is working with is provided with a kind leadership that proves to be visionary to the nursing services provided. He is also has the authority to upli ft the standards of nursing set in the organization. The executive nurses’ obligations are therefore meant to monitor the operations of the nursing team under him in the organization, thus enhancing a better involvement of the nurses in making decisions affecting the management of the organization thus enabling teamwork among the workers. (Grohar and DiCroce, 2002)There are also other types of nurses in the line of leadership in the nursing administration such as the clinical nurse managers whose responsibility is to coordinate and manage the nursing practices in the organization. Nurse Managers also organize and plan giving health care to a large number of people and bringing quality results such as development of staff, strategic planning and care management.Research within the framework of nursing management and leadership has shown that the practices for managerial nurses has changed as a result of good payment, reduced number of people being admitted and reducing the per iod of stay in the nursing profession.Nursing administrators   have also taken additional responsibilities due to extended nursing care such as mobile health care, outpatient clinics and surgi-centers.The responsibilities include negotiating for contracts, looking for supportive services and managing services in other displines are related to nursing profession (Radcliffe, 2000)Nursing administration includes a number of different leadership and management practices such as consumer’s likes and dislikes, political changes, atmosphere in the market, which brings changes in the health care systems. Nurse administrators have different levels of education which include masters of Science in nursing, masters of health administration, certificates of science in nursing and self-study.Since the nursing administration involves the interaction of the nursing practitioner with the clients, it requires one to have an enormous knowledge in communication and an artistic mind that will p ermit the administrator to raise and solve issues in an effective manner. This calls for the people interested in leadership in nursing profession to have the professional approach in ensuring that his or her obligation is well executed. The administrator has to carry out a health care plan which is usually formed using nursing procedures. The first step requires the administrator involved to get information about the subject matter after which he or she looks in to the problem and the possible solutions he then gives orders and the way forward to the people under him so that the problem is solved. (Radcliffe, 2000)A leader in the nursing profession should be able to maintain a good relationship with the professional nurses to avoid them leaving the profession due the feelings of inadequacy, oppression, stress, disempowerment, intimidation, undermining and insubordination. Other factors in care hospitals such as low morale, heavier workloads, reduced resources, can contribute to poo r performance in the profession hence leaving the profession. It is of great essence that the above issues are taken in to consideration in order to retain the nurses and give them morale to work well and administer effective health care. (Sullivan and Decker1997)A wide category of nursing administration is seen in different fields which include: psychology, research in nursing, health care administration, clinical nursing, social sciences and medicine in general. Ways through which leadership and management are carried out is largely borrowed from business administration so it is highly recommended for nurse administrators to be conversant with business and social science materials. A nurse administrator also should be able to intermingle with other health professionals who are believed to be of higher rank and with great experience so that they can be able to learn from them.A leader in the nursing profession should also be a person who has enough experience in the nursing field. He should be conversant with what happens in the field and daily changes which occur for the benefit of those receiving the nursing services. He should be able to interact with all the people who are under him. An administrator should also be able to seek advice and get suggestions from other administrators from different places whom they hold the same position.Leadership and management should be taken as a collective endeavor and responsibility for every one. It should be shared among all the nursing administration and the nurses themselves regardless of their positions because they have responsibility of correcting the challenging factors in the nursing profession. Good administration of leadership in the nursing profession makes it easier and effective to give good services to those who require nursing services thus preventing risks and illness which may lead to death and achieving and maintaining a better health status for a healthy society. (Sullivan and Decker1997)Reference:Gr ohar M and DiCroce H (2002), Leadership and Management in Nursing, Third edition,Prentice-Hall Upper Saddle RiverRadcliffe M (2000), Doctors & nurses, new game same result. British medical journalSullivan E and Decker J (1997): Effective Leadership & Management in Nursing. Addison Wesley, Menlo Park, CA

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Mary Barton Essay

Elizabeth Gaskell’s â€Å"Mary Barton† is a novel of social reform that explores injustice, abuse and inequality. The novel is especially concerned with the societal condition of England at the time. In her â€Å"Preface† Mrs. Gaskell asserted, â€Å"I know nothing of Political Economy, or the theories of the trade. I have tried to write truthfully†. The â€Å"truth† of â€Å"Mary Barton† is not political or economic but the truth of the human heart. The novel is not about industrial conditions but about people living in those conditions. Mrs. Gaskell’s social aim in writing is to inform rather than to reform. Her aim in writing is to give â€Å"utterance to the agony† and to explicate the consequences of â€Å"the seeming injustice of the inequalities of fortune†. In â€Å"Mary Barton†, the protagonist John Barton asks with bitter vehemence about the injustice of the massive gulf between the upper and lower classes: â€Å"Why are they so separate, so distinct, when God has made them all? [†¦ ] We are their slaves as long as we can work; we pile up fortunes with the sweat of our brows; and yet we are to live as separate as Dives and Lazarus, with a great gulf betwixt us†. John Barton is ultimately driven to the act of murder by his outrage at the gulf fixed between the rich and the poor. John Barton is ultimately a victim of society and an example of how a man full of human kindness is hardened into hatred and violence. As the author tells the reader his wife’s death meant that â€Å"one of the ties which bound him down to the gentle humanities of earth was loosened†. The string of events that followed – the strike, the Davenports’ starvation and fever, the employees’ arrogant isolation and the failure of the petition, seem to purposely show that the world reckons the poor folk no account. And as John Barton lies on his deathbed his enemy Mr. Carson sits in his library quite unable to hate his son’s murderer. At the end Mr. Carson forgives John Barton and the murderer dies in the arms of the man whose son he has murdered and this image explicates the novel’s pivotal theme in the hope of human heartedness. In her novel Mrs. Gaskell presents men and women at the extreme of suffering at which point only the most radical of human actions remain be they despair and hatred or alternatively human compassion and forgiveness.